Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Ace records Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Ace records - Essay Example duties in your new stations, you will be allocated a sum of three hundred dollars to enable you buy some of the things that you may find necessary for your operations. With this money, you can buy items such as personal clocks, carpets to make the office welcome and some source of entertainment like a radio to keep you company. The organization through this transformation, will intrinsically make us comfortable while we carry out our duties. This new environment will also allow for privacy given that everyone will operate in his or her own office. Extrinsically, the firm will attract more customers which will generate more income. I know some obstacles such as competition from other well-doing companies will arise but we shall put so much effort as possible. Competition is necessary in a company because it develops hard work in all business firms (Silverstein, 2007). I wish you all the best in your undertakings hoping that you will now dedicate yourselves to make this record group become one of the best in this region and beyond. All of us will be glad when in the next few years, we relocate to a much better and bigger station to make our performance even

Friday, January 31, 2020

Comment Paper on Death of a Salesman Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Comment Paper on Death of a Salesman - Essay Example Miller’s own early life was eerily similar to that of what the reader is made aware of Willy Loman’s life. For instance, Miller grew up in an upper-middle class neighborhood in New York City; the son of Polish Jewish immigrants. Miller’s own father was a successful businessman in a textile mill; which eventually employed 400 individuals. This successful lifestyle enabled the family to enjoy the luxuries of having a new car at a time when cars were still a novelty, attending private schools, and enjoying the occasional vacation. However, the good times would not last as the crash of 1929 and the onset of the Great Depression shattered the family’s bliss. Miller’s father, out of work and out of options sold their home and moved to Gravesend, New York. It was during this time that young Arthur Miller was forced to take a bread route ever morning before school; delivering bread via his bicycle as a means to keep the family afloat. Although it is easy to say that such an experience doubtless had an effect on how Arthur Miller viewed the plight of the average man, this author would go a step further and claim that the hard times and difficult experiences that young Arthur Miller endured during the great depression and his family’s subsequent fall from wealth are autobiographically sketched in his play â€Å"Death of a Salesman†. If one adopts this autobiographical approach to â€Å"Death of a Salesman†, many of the intrinsic lessons and interplay that exists between the family members and Willy Loman help to show the fleeting nature of success and the cold, cruel reality of pervasive failure that crushes the spirit of the entire family. As a means of showing this dichotomy, Willy Loman states, â€Å"Work a lifetime to pay off a house. You finally own it, and there’s nobody to live in it† (Miller 15). Rather than simply relating to the reader how difficult success is to achieve, Miller works to add a nuanced level of understanding which shows that even if success is achieved – what merit does it have in and of itself? The fleeting nature of success as defined by Loman in the above passage profoundly reflects the eventualities that effected Arthur Miller’s own young life with respect to the brief success enjoyed and then snatched away by the Great Depression. Further, strong elements of the Depression Era mentality peak through at various points of Arthur Miller’s play. When speaking with his wife Linda, Willy blurts out, â€Å"Once in my life I’d like to own something that isn’t broken already† (Miller 73). The rage and frustration at being perennially stuck with second best, having to live on the fringes of society, living with inferior products as a result of being poor is seen as a central theme throughout the play. More than merely representing poverty and hardship as the life of a salesman, this form of life alteration to deal wit h the gnawing pangs of poverty shows an author who is all too familiar with such an eventuality. Further, due to the aforementioned fact that Miller himself had to take a bread right prior to school every morning shows the extent to which the author had to sacrifice of himself as a means of helping to keep his own family sheltered, clothed, fed, and warm during a similarly trying time. However, more than being allegorical of the plight of the poor, the author

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Cheap Labour: Canada :: essays research papers

Cheap Labour: Canada Canada, the so-called land of opportunities. This statement is a known fact due to the large amount of people immigrating to our country. It all started back in the 50's and is still occurring in the 90's. I will be discussing the different working mentalities between French Canadians and immigrants coming from various parts of the world. I will compare "Voiceless People" by Marco Micone, and White Niggers of America by Pierre Vallieres. White Niggers emphasizes on the mentality of French Canadian working class and Voiceless People emphasizes on immigrant's mentality towards working, which in this case is the Italian community. After reading "Rivalry Over the Ethnic Minorities", it was like reading my own family's past when they immigrated in Quebec back in the early 70's. Many Greek immigrants who immigrated from their native country followed the same pattern towards finding happiness. Like most of the French, they worked long hard hours in bad working conditions and not so great pay. These sweatshops represent the first act of action to climb up the social ladder. But for the immigrants, it meant much more: they have these jobs in order to save up some money for the future, by a nice house and reach the next step in social ladder. Most of the time, the immigrants would buy their home in other neighborhoods; they would change community because it reflected their new social situation. Because they have more money, they can move to an area where people of the same nationality live. They will leave the French back in the city where they will keep on working long hours because they never saved up or invested their money. The main point I'm trying to show is that the immigrants have a stronger ambition and desire to become more successful than the French do, maybe because they are not at home and threatened by others. This is the world view almost all immigrants have and this concept has a major effect on their lives. Voiceless People is exactly the same scenario for Antonio and his family. Antonio came here very poor and unable to speak a word of French. He started working in factories with very bad pay and even worse working conditions. Just like the typical immigrant, he never gave up, didn't let anyone put him down, continued to work because he had an ambition to become successful and buy a house knowing that he earned it with his own sweat. As a newcomer to this country, he seemed to succeed with great facility, unlike many French Canadians who seem somehow jealous of the immigrants who tend to succeed with such bad

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

With wind power technologies

AbstractionWith wind power engineerings deriving rapid impulse particularly offshore wind farm engineering, assorted issues affecting internal and external electrical connexion of offshore air current turbines to the grid arise. This literature reappraisal presents a survey of past researches refering offshore wind farm engineering and high spots wind farm connexion issues. Section 1 presents the debut of the subject followed by an overview of offshore air current farms in Section 2. Following, types of generators used are discussed in Section 3. Section 4 and 5 nowadayss the nucleus of the research, detailing transmittal and interconnectedness of offshore air current farms utilizing both AC and DC severally. Finally the last subdivision concludes the reappraisal.Section OneIntroductionWind power coevals has been on the rise as of late [ 1 ] . USA late took over Germany as the current universe ‘s leader of air current power capacity [ 2 ] , using air current energy as an option of electricity coevals. European states are preponderantly inclined towards wind power in add-on to Asiatic states such as China and India, which are amongst the top air current power manufacturers [ 2 ] . There is a bound to onshore air current farm connexion nevertheless, due to set down bounds and with the huge potency of air current harvest home from the seas and less obstructor compared to onshore air currents [ 3 ] , it is merely evident that the following logical measure is to travel into offshore wind farms. Furthermore, with changeless power produced from the changeless air current velocity of the sea [ 1 ] , and the possible combination of moving ridge and tidal power [ 4 ] , chances of offshore air current farms are promoting. Installations of offshore air current farms are non fiddling, as many factors and concerns are taken into history over the substructure and layout. The unsmooth hostile environment of the sea gives rather a challenge for installing and transmittal to the grid and it is a critical concern. Overall, there are several electrical challenges sing offshore air current farms in contrast to the mechanical challenges that has well reduced over the past decennary [ 1 ] . A major challenge sing offshore air current farms would be its transmittal from generator to the grid [ 5 ] . The conventional AC transmittals provide restrictions as offshore air current farms move farther off from the shore. These restrictions will be studied and possible solutions are to be recommended. This literature reappraisal presents an overview of grid connexion of offshore air current turbines, diging into types of generators used, every bit good as air current farm interconnectedness, transmittals of power to onshore grid and reappraisals of jobs related.Section TwoGeneral Overview of Offshore Wind FarmsWind farms are considered offshore if they are at least 30km from the seashore [ 6 ] . Presently, the biggest offshore air current farms has a capacity of up to 200MW [ 7 ] , with each turbines bring forthing 2-3MW. Offshore air current farms are dearly-won ( 30-60 % higher [ 4 ] ) than onshore due to the larger, higher rated power of turbines, undersea connexions and overall cost of installing and care [ 3 ] . Harmonizing to Reference [ 3 ] , air current farms have electrical subsystems which consist of:Internal medium-voltage ( MV ) grid for aggregation of power produced by single generators ;Offshore electrical substructure for transit of power to the shore ;Onshore system which link the farm to HV webs.The power produced by each air current turbine is collected via the internal MV grids utilizing either radial or pealing connected design [ 3 ] . Radial design, being the cheapest pick, uses a individual overseas telegram feeder that is connected to the turbines in contrast to the ring connected web where cabling and exchanging output higher costs. Radial design suffer from low dependability, though it can be improved by forking the radial feeders [ 3 ] . Depending on air current farm size and distance from shore, every bit good as environmental restriction, [ 3 ] nowadayss two strategies of electrical substructures for transporting power to the shore. Scheme 1 utilizations an seaward substation incorporating switchgears and transformers [ 8 ] , which step up electromotive forces and transmit it utilizing HV overseas telegrams, while Scheme 2 utilizations undersea MV overseas telegrams [ 3 ] . The defined point of common yoke ( PCC ) is where the offshore air current farm connects to the grid [ 3 ] . If an offshore substation is present beforehand ( Scheme 1 ) , the HV overseas telegrams are connected straight to the grid but if MV overseas telegrams are used for transmittal ( Scheme 2 ) , so an onshore step-up transformer is required with HV overseas telegrams before being fed to the grid [ 3 ] . Figure 1 below shows the two different electrical system strategies. Figure 1: Wind farm electrical system schemes [ 3 ] Offshore substation is normally required for electromotive forces above 33kv [ 9 ] and is costlier due to dearly-won indoor equipment and environmental protection [ 9 ] but contributes to take down power losingss and simpler electromotive force control [ 3 ] .Section ThreeWind Turbines and GeneratorsDifferent types of air current generators have been designed and manufactured within the past two decennaries, to provide to the demands of planetary air current power capacity every bit good as the turning development of air current power engineering [ 10 ] . These wind generators are designed to back up and manage mistakes on the grid [ 7 ] . There are assorted types of generators for air current turbines and they are categorized harmonizing to synchronal or initiation type generators.3.1 Synchronous GeneratorsThe power convertor in Figure 2 refers to a rectifier, with constellation a being stator connected and the remainder being rotor connected [ 11 ] .3.2 Initiation GeneratorsAs for initiation generators, typical constellations for air current farms are shown in Figure 3 below For constellation a, the power convertor is a soft starting motor whereas for constellation B and vitamin D, it refers to a frequence convertor. Configuration degree Celsius has an external variable rotor opposition [ 11 ] .3.3 Fixed Speed and Variable Speed Wind TurbinesIn conventional systems, fixed velocity air current turbines are used in order to accomplish equal frequence of the grid and the electrical end product [ 6 ] . However, variable velocity air current turbines are has an advantage over fixed velocity air current turbines due to holding advanced power electronic constituents and good control for grid support. Fixed velocity turbines are by and large cheaper, simple and robust and Reference [ 7 ] presented a new control method to get the better of the restrictions and believes that the fixed velocity turbines will be popular once more if betterments are made over its grid support. Fixed velocity or variable velocity air current turbine design relies to a great extent on an optimal rotational velocity expressed by a factor called tip-speed ratio [ 6, 12 ] Wind turbines will work under certain tip-speed ratio for the coveted turbine efficiency. In Figure 4, a typical graph demoing the relation of air current turbine efficiency and tip-speed ratio is shown. Mentioning to the graph, accomplishing 47 % efficiency requires the air current turbine to hold a tip-speed ratio of 8 [ 13 ] . Figure 4: Example relation between air current turbine efficiency and tip-speed ratio [ 13 ]3.4 Fixed Speed GeneratorsFixed Speed Synchronous GeneratorsFixed velocity synchronal generators produce end product frequence based on the turbine ‘s rotational frequence ; which implies that it is synchronized with the generator ‘s shaft velocity [ 6 ] . These machines can bring forth electricity by itself without the grid ‘s power, so in instance of care or fix plants, isolation of the generators must be implemented [ 6 ] for safety grounds.Fixed Speed Induction GeneratorsInitiation generators are normally used for fixed velocity turbines, particularly squirrel-cage type generators and they connect straight to the AC grid without the demand for frequence convertors [ 13 ] . Reference [ 6 ] provinces that the grid ‘s excitement controls the frequence of the generator ‘s end product. When air current velocities go above the rated velocity threshold ( shutdown or roll uping wind velocity [ 5 ] ) of normally 25/ , the end product power is constrained by natural stall or active pitching of turbine blades and if that fails, the turbine is so stopped. For improved turbine efficiency, fixed wind generators can exchange between pole yokes to run at two different velocities [ 13 ] . This characteristic is to let low air currents velocity to hold better efficiency. Initiation generators are favoured for their low cost and isolation for care plants is non required compared to the synchronal generators, due to its inability to bring forth electricity when the grid ‘s power is cut off. However, initiation generators have a disadvantage of that it consumes reactive power from the grid, though including capacitances between the generator and the grid could counterpoise the job [ 6 ] [ 13 ] . Initiation generators besides require a cut-off system to avoid it moving as a motor when air current speeds lessenings.3.5 Variable Speed GeneratorsThrough variable velocity generators, we can do the rotor to run at a fixed tip-speed ratio over changing air current velocities to obtain maximal efficiency [ 13 ] . This is achieved by utilizing frequence convertors or commanding the rotor ‘s faux pas [ 13 ] . The former method licenses wider velocity scope. Reference [ 10 ] has made a comparing survey on seven variable velocity changeless frequence ( VSCF ) air current generators dwelling of both synchronal and induction generators. The initiation generators studied specifically are double fed initiation generators ( DFIG ) and VSCF squirrel coop initiation generators ( SCIG ) , whereas the synchronal generator types were lasting magnet synchronal generators ( PMSG ) and electrically excited synchronal generator ( EESG ) [ 10 ] . Both of the synchronal generators are direct driven in contrast to the geared goaded initiation generators. Based on the comparing consequences, the geared driven double fed initiation generators ( DFIG ) emerged as the most appealing due to its high one-year energy production ( AEP ) per cost and lowest generator system cost and it is recommended for big power evaluation use [ 10 ] .Doubly Fed Induction Generator ( DFIG )This lesion rotor machine can work as a variable-speed generator through debut of variable electromotive forces into its rotor at slip frequence [ 14 ] . The variable velocity is deter mined by the two IGBT based electromotive force beginning convertors ‘ evaluations and it is through these convertors that the rotor get the variable electromotive forces [ 14 ] .Section FourOffshore Wind Farm AC TransmissionAC transmittal is a good developed engineering [ 15 ] and soon used in most air current farms [ 16 ] . For offshore air current farms that are below 100km distance from shore and less than 150MW capacity, high electromotive force AC ( HVAC ) transmittal is a favoured pick for being the most economical method [ 17 ] . AC transmittal has the advantages of [ 16 ] :Simpler installing, care and interconnectednessCost effectualOperational consistenceAC links are non used for longer distances due to high electrical capacity and bring forth reactive currents [ 15 ] . This implies bigger reactive power due to the bear downing currents produced as overseas telegrams become longer and reactive power compensators are needed [ 5 ] [ 15 ] . AC transmittal loses its economic entreaty when active current is less than the bear downing current [ 15 ] . The transporting burden current capacity of the AC overseas telegrams is reduced because the overseas telegrams must physically transport both burden and bear downing currents at the same clip [ 16 ] . Reference [ 16 ] shows that bear downing current is expressed by =2F where F is frequence, is electrical capacity and is electromotive force ; and the relation of current capacity is 2= 2+2, where is the overseas telegram current capacity and is load current. Based on look, utilizing DC outputs =0 at steady province [ 16 ] , which shows the advantage of DC holding higher transporting load current capacity. Besides bear downing currents, AC cables besides experience power losingss ( 2 ) [ 16 ] and there are bounds to a figure of AC overseas telegrams that can be installed due to the environment [ 18 ] .Section FiveOffshore Wind Farm DC Transmission5.1 HVDC LinksConventionally, offshore wind farms are connected to the grid via AC transmittal as antecedently stated. Latest developments nevertheless, have suggested that AC links are to be substituted with a District of Columbia transmittal system. Typically used for far wind farms of more than 60km, HVDC links are non limited by the length of transmittal and therefore will be a executable and economical option when air current farms are larger and further off from shore compared to AC links [ 1 ] . HVDC transmittal is associated with variable velocity air current turbines due to the ability t o command the frequence of air current turbine grids and is independent of the power system frequence [ 11 ] . Reference [ 19 ] has stated the list of advantages of HVDC compared to HVAC, based on Reference [ 8 ] , which are:Independence of directing and having frequences every bit good as isolation of system from other webs.The distance of HVDC transmittal are unaffected by overseas telegram bear downing current.HVDC overseas telegrams are capable of higher transmittal capacity.Power losingss on overseas telegram are low.Controllability of power flow.5.2 Wind Farm AC Grid ConfigurationThe simplest DC grid connexion for air current farms is by feeding the AC grid air current turbines into a power convertor and linking it to the AC grid utilizing HVDC links. The figure below illustrates this. Figure 5: Group connexion of a air current farm to an HVDC nexus [ 11 ] The benefits of this constellation is that sum of power convertors are lessened compared to DC grid constellation, but they supply reactive power to the air current farm, enabling it to defy grid mistakes [ 11 ] .5.3 Wind Farm DC Grid ConfigurationAn alternate method is to hold each turbines have their ain rectifier such as Figure 6. Figure 6: Individual connexion of air current turbines to HVDC links [ 11 ] Compared to AC grid constellation, DC grid enables control of frequence and velocity of each single turbines [ 11 ] . Reference [ 1 ] explains the working of an DC grid air current farm in more item. Figure 7: Example of DC grid [ 1 ] Mentioning to Figure 7, the electromotive force from the air current generators is first rectified, gathered and so transferred to an offshore platform where the electromotive force is stepped up well by a DC/DC convertor, or else the system will endure high losingss during transmittal [ 1 ] . Power is so transmitted through a District of Columbia overseas telegram, connected to an inverter onshore and finally fed into the grid.5.4 Line Commutated Control ( LCC ) HVDC utilizing ThyristorsLCC transmittal require commuting electromotive force which is conventionally supplied through a normal or a inactive ( STATCOM ) type synchronal compensator [ 19 ] . The advantages of LCC systems in seaward air current farms are [ 19 ] :LCC transmittal can be used for high capacity power, making 1600MW nexus compared to VSC transmittals, which reach 300MW [ 17 ] .Over 30 old ages of development in LCC engineeringThe convertor station for an LCC system is twice the size in contrast to a VSC system du e to the switchgears and breaker- switched AC harmonic filters necessitating much infinite.LCC systems have lower power losingss compared to VSC systems.5.5 Voltage Source Converter ( VSC ) HVDC utilizing IGBTsBesides conventional LCC transmittal, another engineering is the electromotive force beginning convertor ( VSC ) transmittal utilizing IGBTs. The electromotive forces beginning comes from capacitances [ 20 ] . The advantages of VSC transmittals used in air current farms are [ 19 ] :VSC systems are self-commutating and external electromotive force beginning is non required for operation.Reactive power control does non necessitate switchable AC harmonic filters and is independent of active power control.The power reactive power flow is independently controlled, doing AC electromotive forces from each terminal controllable.5.6 HVDC and HVAC CombinationNot all offshore air current farms are built in it ‘s wholly. They are normally built in stages. For such state of affairss, Reference [ 21 ] recommends transmission combination of HVAC and HVDC. Preliminary stages of building of air current farms can use AC connexion due to the initial little graduated table and subsequently utilizing HVDC connexion as the air current farm ‘s scale expands [ 21 ] .Section SixDecisionOverview of offshore air current farms has been presented in this literature reappraisal. Different topologies and internal grid connexions are outlined. Furthermore, we have looked into applications of synchronal and initiation generators used in air current turbines and explored the difference between fixed velocity and variable velocity generators, which are indispensable in air current turbines in regard to generated end product power. Finally, a general sum-up of the transmittal methods for offshore wind farms were documented, traveling into specific AC transmittal drawbacks and the emerging tendency of HVDC transmittals. Based on the generalised apprehension of the air current farms, we aim to further analyze the jobs of its connexion, with respects to the air current farm ‘s internal grid and AC transmittal to the chief grid. Comparisons between internal DC and AC grid of air current farms will besides be studied. Power flow surveies and simulations will be conducted and aimed at bring forthing new recommendations and solutions.MentionsC. Meyer, et al. , â€Å" Control and Design of DC Grids for Offshore Wind Farms, † Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 43, pp. 1475-1482, 2007.G. W. E. Council, â€Å" Global Installed Wind Power Capacity ( MW ) – Regional Distribution, † 2008.M. Dicorato, et al. , â€Å" Critical issues in big offshore air current farm design and operation, † in Clean Electrical Power, 2009 International Conference on, 2009, pp. 471-478.M. Nandigam and S. K. Dhali, â€Å" Optimal design of an offshore air current farm layout, † in Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion, 2008. SPEEDAM 2008. International Symposium on, 2008, pp. 1470-1474.J. Machowski, et al. , Power System Dynamics: Stability and Control, Second Edition erectile dysfunction. : John Wiley & A ; Sons, Ltd, 2008.J. Twidell, A Guide to Small Wind Energy Conversion Systems: Cambridge University Press, 1987.D. H. Anca, et al. , â€Å" Grid support of a air current farm with active stall air current turbines and AC grid connexion, † Wind Energy, vol. 9, pp. 341-359, 2006.N. M. Kirby, et al. , â€Å" HVDC transmittal for big offshore air current farms, † Power Engineering Journal, vol. 16, pp. 135-141, 2002.W.Grainger and N.Jenkins, â€Å" Offshore Wind Farm Electrical Connection Options. †L. Hui and C. Zhe, â€Å" Design optimisation and rating of different air current generator systems, † in Electrical Machines and Systems, 2008. ICEMS 2008. International Conference on, 2008, pp. 2396-2401.L. H. L. H. Hansen, F. Blaabjerg, E. Ritchie, S. Munk-Nielsen, H. Bindner, P. S & A ; oslash ; rensen, B. Bak-Jensen, â€Å" Conceptual study of Generators and Power Electronics for Wind Turbines, † 2001.S. Heier, Grid Integration of Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Second erectile dysfunction. : John Wiley & A ; Sons, Ltd, 2006.T. John Olav Gi & A ; aelig ; ver, â€Å" Using power quality features of air current turbines for measuring impact on electromotive force quality, † Wind Energy, vol. 5, pp. 37-52, 2002.T. John Olav Gi & A ; aelig ; ver, â€Å" Grid Integration of Wind Farms, † Wind Energy, vol. 6, pp. 281-295, 2003.P. Sally D. Wright, et al. , â€Å" Transmission Options for Offshore Wind Farms in the United States, † p. 12, 2002.ESS, â€Å" Appendix 3-C, Transmission Issues for Offshore Wind Farms with Specific Application to Siting of the Proposed Cape Wind Project, † Restrictions of Long Transmission Cables for Offshore Wind Farms 2003.S. Foste r, et al. , â€Å" Control of an LCC HVDC system for linking big offshore air current farms with particular consideration of grid mistake, † Pittsburgh, PA, United provinces, 2008.T. Kenichi, et al. , â€Å" New control for HVDC system connected to big windfarm, † Electrical Engineering in Japan, vol. 166, pp. 31-39, 2009.L. Xu and B. R. Andersen, â€Å" Grid connexion of big offshore air current farms utilizing HVDC, † Wind Energy, vol. 9, pp. 371-382, 2006.E. Spahic and G. Balzer, â€Å" Impact of the VSC HVDC Connection of Large Offshore Wind Farms on Power System Stability and Control, † in Power Tech, 2007 IEEE Lausanne, 2007, pp. 207-212.E. Spahic and G. Balzer, â€Å" Offshore air current farms – VSC-based HVDC connexion, † in Power Tech, 2005 IEEE Russia, 2005, pp. 1-6.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Inspiring Quotes by Eleanor Roosevelt

Married to her distant cousin Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1905, Eleanor Roosevelt worked in settlement houses before focusing on supporting her husbands political career after he contracted poliomyelitis in 1921. Through the Depression and New Deal and then World War II, Eleanor Roosevelt traveled when her husband was less able to. Her daily column My Day in the newspaper broke with precedent, as did her press conferences and lectures. After FDRs death, Eleanor Roosevelt continued her political career, serving in the United Nations and helping create the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Selected Eleanor Roosevelt Quotations You gain strength, courage, and confidence by every experience in which you really stop to look fear in the face. You must do the thing which you think you cannot do.No one can make you feel inferior without your consent.Remember always that you not only have the right to be an individual, you have an obligation to be one.The word liberal comes from the word free. We must cherish and honor the word free or it will cease to apply to us.When you know to laugh and when to look upon things as too absurd to take seriously, the other person is ashamed to carry through even if he was serious about it.It is not fair to ask of others what you are not willing to do yourself.What is to give light must endure the burning.Do what you feel in your heart to be right - for youll be criticized anyway. Youll be damned if you do, and damned if you dont.For it isnt enough to talk about peace. One must believe in it. And it isnt enough to believe in it. One must work at it.When all is said and done, and statesmen discuss the future of the world, the fact remains that people fight these wars.When will our consciences grow so tender that we will act to prevent human misery rather than avenge it?Friendship with oneself is all important because without it one cannot be friends with anybody else in the world.We all create the person we become by our choices as we go through life. In a real sense, by the time we are adults, we are the sum total of the choices we have made.I think that somehow, we learn who we really are and then live with that decision.The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams.I say to the young: Do not stop thinking of life as an adventure. You have no security unless you can live bravely, excitingly, imaginatively.As for accomplishments, I just did what I had to do as things came along.I could not, at any age, be content to take my place by the fireside and simply look on. Life was meant to be lived. Curiosity must be kept alive. One must ne ver, for whatever reason, turn his back on life.Do the things that interest you and do them with all your heart. Dont be concerned about whether people are watching you or criticizing you. The chances are that they arent paying attention to you.Your ambition should be to get as much life out of living as you possibly can, as much enjoyment, as much interest, as much experience, as much understanding. Not simply be what is generally called a success.Too often the great decisions are originated and given form in bodies made up wholly of men, or so completely dominated by them that whatever of special value women have to offer is shunted aside without expression.Campaign behavior for wives: Always be on time. Do as little talking as humanly possible. Lean back in the parade car so everybody can see the president.It was a wifes duty to be interested in whatever interested her husband, whether it was politics, books, or a particular dish for dinner.We women are callow fledglings as compa red with the wise old birds who manipulate the political machinery, and we still hesitate to believe that a woman can fill certain positions in public life as competently and adequately as a man.For instance, it is certain that women do not want a woman for President. Nor would they have the slightest confidence in her ability to fulfill the functions of that office.Every woman who fails in a public position confirms this, but every woman who succeeds creates confidence. [1932]No man is defeated without until he has first been defeated within.Marriages are two-way streets and when they are not happy both must be willing to adjust. Both must love.Its good to be middle-aged, things dont matter so much, you dont take it so hard when things happen to you that you dont like.You like to respect and admire someone whom you love, but actually, you love even more the people who require understanding and who make mistakes and have to grow with their mistakes.You cant move so fast that you try to change the mores faster than people can accept it. That doesnt mean you do nothing, but it means that you do the things that need to be done according to priority.It is neither unusual nor new for me to have Negro friends, nor is it unusual for me to have found my friends among all races and religions of people. [1953]The separation of church and state is extremely important to any of us who hold to the original traditions of our nation. To change these traditions by changing our traditional attitude toward public education would be harmful, I think, to our whole attitude of tolerance in the religious area.Religious freedom cannot just mean Protestant freedom; it must be freedom of all religious people.Anyone who knows history, particularly the history of Europe, will, I think, recognize that the domination of education or of government by any one particular religious faith is never a happy arrangement for the people.A little simplification would be the first step toward rationa l living, I think.The more we simplify our material needs the more we are free to think of other things.One must even beware of too much certainty that the answer to lifes problems can only be found in one way and that all must agree to search for light in the same way and cannot find it in any other way.A mature person is one who is does not think only in absolutes, who is able to be objective even when deeply stirred emotionally, who has learned that there is both good and bad in all people and all things, and who walks humbly and deals charitably with the circumstances of life, knowing that in this world no one is all-knowing and therefore all of us need both love and charity. (from It Seems to Me 1954) It is essential to have the leadership of a young and energetic President if we are going to have a program of any validity, so let us look forward to a change in November and hope that youth and wisdom will be combined. (1960, looking forward to the election of John F. Kennedy)To o few of us think of the responsibility facing the man who will be President of the U.S. and of all its people on his inauguration, January 20. The crowds that have surrounded him during the past year, the feel he has had of the people who did support him -- all this will now seem far away as he sits down to appraise the whole situation before him.  (1960, November 14, after the election of John F. Kennedy)You rarely achieve finality. If you did, life would be over, but as you strive new visions open before you, new possibilities for the satisfaction of living.I consider those are rich who are doing something they feel worthwhile and which they enjoy doing.She would rather light candles than curse the darkness, and her glow has warmed the world. (Adlai Stevenson, about Eleanor Roosevelt) About These Quotes Quote collection assembled by Jone Johnson Lewis. This is an informal collection assembled over many years. I regret that I am not able to provide the original source if it is not listed with the quote.

Monday, December 30, 2019

Biggest Volcanic Eruption in History

It all depends on what you mean by â€Å"history.† While Homo sapiens have been able to accurately record scientific information for only a short amount of time, we do have the ability to estimate the size and explosive strength of historic and prehistoric volcanoes. In an attempt to answer the question, we’ll take a look at the largest eruptions in recorded, human and geologic history.   Mt. Tambora eruption (1815), Indonesia The biggest eruption since the rise of modern science would undoubtedly be  Tambora. After showing signs of life in 1812, the volcano erupted with such force in 1815 that its 13,000-plus feet peak was reduced to around 9,350 ft. By comparison, the eruption produced more than 150 times the amount of volcanic material than the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. It registered as a 7 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) scale Unfortunately, it was responsible for the biggest loss of life from volcanic eruption in human history, as ~10,000 people died directly from volcanic activity and more than 50,000 others died from post-eruption starvation and disease. This eruption was also responsible for a volcanic winter that lowered temperatures worldwide. Mount Toba eruption (74,000 years ago), Sumatra The really huge ones were long before written history. The largest since the rise of modern humans,  Homo sapiens, was the great eruption of Toba. It produced some 2800 cubic kilometers of ash, around 17 times that of the Mount Tambora eruption. It had a VEI of 8. Like the Tambora explosion, Toba probably produced a devastating volcanic winter. Scholars think that this may have decimated the early human population. The eruption lowered temperatures by 3 to 5 degrees Celsius for several years after. La Garita Caldera eruption (~28 million years ago), Colorado The largest eruption we have firm evidence for in  geologic history  is the La Garita Caldera eruption during the Oligocene Epoch. The eruption was so large that scientists recommended a 9.2 rating on the 8-point VEI scale. La Garita put 5000 cubic kilometers of volcanic material into play and was ~105 times more powerful than the largest nuclear weapon ever tested.   There might be larger ones, but the further back in time we go,  tectonic activity becomes increasingly responsible for the destruction of geologic evidence.   Honorable Mentions: Wah Wah Springs eruption (~30 million years ago), Utah/Nevada – While this eruption has been known about for some time, BYU geologists recently revealed that its deposit may be larger than the La Garita deposit. Huckleberry Ridge eruption  (2.1 million years ago), Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming – This was the largest of 3 major Yellowstone hotspot volcanoes, producing 2500 cubic kilometers of volcanic ash. It had a VEI of 8.   Oruanui eruption (~26,500 years ago) of Taupo Volcano, New Zealand  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ this VEI 8 eruption is the largest to occur in the past 70,000 years. Taupo Volcano also produced a VEI 7 eruption around 180 AD. Millennium eruption  (~946 CE) of Tianchi (Paektu), China/North Korea – This VEI 7 eruption dropped nearly a meter of ash on the  Korean Peninsula. Mount St. Helens eruption (1980), Washington – While dwarfed in comparison to the rest of the eruptions on this list – for context, La Garita’s deposit was 5,000 times larger – this 1980 explosion reached a level 5 on the VEI and was the most destructive volcano to occur in the United States.

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Hurricane Devastation Of The United States - 1034 Words

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